Tuesday, July 28, 2020

Disengagement Theory of Aging A Critical Essay

Disengagement Theory of Aging A Critical Essay An Overview and Critique of Social Disengagement Theory There are many sociological theories that focus on the discussion of the changing roles, statuses, and relationships that accompany the process of aging and their impact on the older person’s ability to adapt. Here I am going to discuss one of the earliest and most controversial social theories of aging â€" disengagement theory that describes the process of aging as the disengagement. The theory gives disengagement definition as a process of gradual withdrawal of older people from society. The disengagement theory of aging suggests that it’s quite common and acceptable that older adults withdraw or disengage from social roles and their personal relationships as they grow old. This process is applicable to elderly people in all cultures. The theory suggests that the society recognizes that the elder people will soon die and that the society has to prepare to live and work in their absence. As a functional theory, it argues that the disengagement process is necessary and beneficial to the society because it ensures that the social system can remain stable and ordered. The theory overview Disengagement theory was developed by sociologists Elaine Cumming and Warren Earl Henry in their book Growing Old in 1961. In the book, Cumming and Henry present a logical argument on the causes that make older adults disengage from society. The scientists based their theory on a study conducted at the Chicago University and on data from a longitudinal research â€" the Kansas City Study of Adult Life that studied hundreds of adults from middle to old age. The disengagement theory gives a systematic discussion of the process of aging and describes the evolution of the elderly people social lives. The sociologists organize their argument around nine postulates that make it clear why it is reasonable for aging individuals who are aware that death is coming nearer and who have experienced deaths of their aging friends to start to expect their own deaths and disengage. The theory starts with a key idea that everyone is aware that he will die and that all people expect that their personal abilities are likely to weaken over time. As those abilities deteriorate, an aging person begins to disengage from personal and social contacts and loses touch with social norms that determine the interaction. Narrowing of a person’s social circles fuels the process of disengagement. As a result, the aging person gradually disconnects from existing social roles and responsibilities and does not take up any new ones. The process of social disengagement is influenced by an aging individual and the society. Aging people lose knowledge and skills and eventually they will not be able to meet society’s requirements for their social roles. As these changes develop, the elderly people are prompted to disengage from their responsibilities. On the other hand, the structure of society may require an elderly individual to disengage. The theory states that elderly people are ready to disengage from their roles when they lose their ego energy. The society allows the disengagement taking into account the degree to which older people are needed and considering their abilities to fulfill their social roles. According to the social disengagement theory, disengagement process differs between men and women because each gender has different social roles in society. Criticism The disengagement theory has always been strongly criticized. Most criticism challenges Cumming and Henry’s assumptions that individual’s withdrawal from society is inevitable, natural or beneficial. Many critics argue that social withdrawal of an aging person is voluntary and say that similar social disengagement can occur at any stage of a person’s life because of external factors that cannot be easily explained. Besides, social disengagement theory does not take into account a very important fact that changing economic or health conditions may influence the process of social withdrawal to say nothing of such serious mental conditions as Alzheimer’s syndrome. Some critics claim that social withdrawal does not have to be inevitable, and others point out that this process cannot be considered as culturally universal. According to social disengagement theory, its postulates are not influenced by culture but actually, the culture defines the forms that postulates may take. Conclusion Disengagement theory has no research base and lacks empirical support. Besides, many older people want to remain occupied and be involved in the life of the society. The theory has been rejected by gerontologists and social sciences because it fails to take into account many important factors. It was the first social theory of aging in modern science and being controversially received, it influenced the further development of research in social sciences and promoted the appearance of different theories about elderly people, their roles in society, and their social relationships.

Friday, May 22, 2020

A Short Story - 1749 Words

A solitary figure crossed the royal prison courtyard, his strides as purposeful as the reasons for visiting the penitentiary during the stale midnight hours. His slinky, weasel like features instantly became the source of ridicule from the quartet of guards standing at the entrance gate. The combination of their whispered insults and contemptuous laughter as the lanky man approached, were not well concealed. Without a doubt their lack of discretion was purposefully intentional and, obviously, the insults were blatantly meant to be overheard. All four guards remained at ease, unbothered and unwilling to come to attention even as the stranger stood directly in front of them and waited for some sort of response. The visitor surveyed the†¦show more content†¦The abusive guard now wore a face of shock and surprise, unsure of what else to say. Should I apologize to the little weasel and beg forgiveness, hoping the Queen will not know of this incident? the guard pondered. â€Å"Let him through!† was all he could muster. Gliding past the guards, the visitor thought nothing could wipe the smile from his face. The satisfactory feeling of besting Her Majesty’s most formidable sentries with mere words instead of sword, felt satiating and palpable. On entry into the bowels of the dungeon, the air changed drastically into a foul cloud of rot. Its smell wiped the smirk from the visitor’s face rather quickly. It stank rather badly of indescribable odors. Even for a man who had spent years living on the back streets of London, smelling its piss and shit, stepping into vomit and over scores of dead rats, working its filthy streets up until the day Master Dorne had hired him, this place was intolerable. A Jailer escorted the visitor through row after row of caged inmates. Some quiet, afraid, and withdrawn from ever yone. Others crazed, obnoxious and wild. They hooted and hollered, violently reaching out for his clothing. As covered in dirt as they still were, his garments looked brand new in comparison to theirs. The rows of single cages ended abruptly and broke off into a smaller hall linedShow MoreRelatedshort story1018 Words   |  5 Pagesï » ¿Short Stories:  Ã‚  Characteristics †¢Short  - Can usually be read in one sitting. †¢Concise:  Ã‚  Information offered in the story is relevant to the tale being told.  Ã‚  This is unlike a novel, where the story can diverge from the main plot †¢Usually tries to leave behind a  single impression  or effect.  Ã‚  Usually, though not always built around one character, place, idea, or act. †¢Because they are concise, writers depend on the reader bringing  personal experiences  and  prior knowledge  to the story. Four MajorRead MoreThe Short Stories Ideas For Writing A Short Story Essay1097 Words   |  5 Pageswriting a short story. Many a time, writers run out of these short story ideas upon exhausting their sources of short story ideas. If you are one of these writers, who have run out of short story ideas, and the deadline you have for coming up with a short story is running out, the short story writing prompts below will surely help you. Additionally, if you are being tormented by the blank Microsoft Word document staring at you because you are not able to come up with the best short story idea, youRead MoreShort Story1804 Words   |  8 PagesShort story: Definition and History. A  short story  like any other term does not have only one definition, it has many definitions, but all of them are similar in a general idea. According to The World Book Encyclopedia (1994, Vol. 12, L-354), â€Å"the short story is a short work of fiction that usually centers around a single incident. Because of its shorter length, the characters and situations are fewer and less complicated than those of a novel.† In the Cambridge Advanced Learner’s DictionaryRead MoreShort Stories648 Words   |  3 Pageswhat the title to the short story is. The short story theme I am going conduct on is â€Å"The Secret Life of Walter Mitty’ by James Thurber (1973). In this short story the literary elements being used is plot and symbols and the theme being full of distractions and disruption. The narrator is giving a third person point of view in sharing the thoughts of the characters. Walter Mitty the daydreamer is very humorous in the different plots of his dr ifting off. In the start of the story the plot, symbols,Read MoreShort Stories1125 Words   |  5 PagesThe themes of short stories are often relevant to real life? To what extent do you agree with this view? In the short stories â€Å"Miss Brill† and â€Å"Frau Brechenmacher attends a wedding† written by Katherine Mansfield, the themes which are relevant to real life in Miss Brill are isolation and appearance versus reality. Likewise Frau Brechenmacher suffers through isolation throughout the story and also male dominance is one of the major themes that are highlighted in the story. These themes areRead MoreShort Story and People1473 Words   |  6 Pagesï » ¿Title: Story Of An Hour Author: Kate Chopin I. On The Elements / Literary Concepts The short story Story Of An Hour is all about the series of emotions that the protagonist, Mrs. Mallard showed to the readers. With the kind of plot of this short story, it actually refers to the moments that Mrs. Mallard knew that all this time, her husband was alive. For the symbol, I like the title of this short story because it actually symbolizes the time where Mrs. Mallard died with joy. And with thatRead MoreShort Story Essay1294 Words   |  6 PagesA short story concentrates on creating a single dynamic effect and is limited in character and situation. It is a language of maximum yet economical effect. Every word must do a job, sometimes several jobs. Short stories are filled with numerous language and sound devices. These language and sound devices create a stronger image of the scenario or the characters within the text, which contribute to the overall pre-designed effect.As it is shown in the metaphor lipstick bleeding gently in CinnamonRead MoreRacism in the Short Stor ies1837 Words   |  7 PagesOften we read stories that tell stories of mixing the grouping may not always be what is legal or what people consider moral at the time. The things that you can learn from someone who is not like you is amazing if people took the time to consider this before judging someone the world as we know it would be a completely different place. The notion to overlook someone because they are not the same race, gender, creed, religion seems to be the way of the world for a long time. Racism is so prevalentRead MoreThe Idol Short Story1728 Words   |  7 PagesThe short stories â€Å"The Idol† by Adolfo Bioy Casares and â€Å"Axolotl† by Julio Cortà ¡zar address the notion of obsession, and the resulting harm that can come from it. Like all addictions, obsession makes one feel overwhelmed, as a single thought comes to continuously intruding our mind, causing the individual to not be able to ignore these thoughts. In â€Å"Axolotl†, the narr ator is drawn upon the axolotls at the Jardin des Plantes aquarium and his fascination towards the axolotls becomes an obsession. InRead MoreGothic Short Story1447 Words   |  6 Pages The End. In the short story, â€Å"Emma Barrett,† the reader follows a search party group searching for a missing girl named Emma deep in a forest in Oregon. The story follows through first person narration by a group member named Holden. This story would be considered a gothic short story because of its use of setting, theme, symbolism, and literary devices used to portray the horror of a missing six-year-old girl. Plot is the literal chronological development of the story, the sequence of events

Saturday, May 9, 2020

Analyzing Varying Theories Of Motivation Essay - 2447 Words

Throughout this essay I shall be critically analysing varying theories of motivation in the context of the workplace, so as to assess the validity of the statement â€Å"Employees only go to work to earn money† Generically speaking there are a multitude of perspectives when looking at theories of motivation; the first of these being Content Theories, which examine the prominent motives behind behaviour. Content theories â€Å"focus upon the values and needs which motivate people.† (Thompson, 1996:9) One of the most influential theories which would fall under this category is Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs. The theory derives from the idea that everyone strives to achieve what he terms as â€Å"self-actualisation.† In order to do this, one must first achieve everything below self-actualisation on the pyramid starting from the bottom. â€Å"According to Maslow only if the lower needs are satisfied, a higher need can become active.† (Rakowski, 2011:4) Self actualisation is the act of achieving your full potential and being the best that you can be. It has also been defined by Murphy as being â€Å"the ultimate goal of a man who constantly tends towards growth.† (Worth, 2010:6) Maslow’s theory could be interpreted, to an extent, as supporting the statement because in order to accomplish the physiological needs of food; water, warmth and rest, which is at the base of the pyramid, one must first earn the money to pay for these necessities. By going to work with the focus of earning money, one would be ableShow MoreRelatedGaming Strategies In The Classroom719 Words   |  3 PagesLeaning, M. (2015). A study of the use of games and gamification to enhance student engagement, experience and achievement on a theory-based course of an undergraduate media degree. Journal of Media Practice, 16(2), 155-170. Within this research, Leaning (2015) explores the effectiveness of game techniques to teach media theory to undergraduate students. The author provides background of the content being taught within the classroom and how it is often difficult for students to understand. ThereforeRead MoreHow Conflict Management Tools in Venture Creation Programs Affects Motivation, Learning Experience and Overall Performance in the Venture Team1015 Words   |  4 PagesThis thesis investigates how conflict management tools in venture creation programs affects motivation, learning experience and overall performance in the venture team. By using insider action research methodology, author studies how lack of conflict management tools affected her. 1.1Chalmers School of entrepreneurship and learning by doing In today’s globalized, competitive society entrepreneurial culture is becoming more and more popular. (Ollila and Williams). Today, there are about 17 actionRead MoreOrganizational Management Approach And Management Theory1708 Words   |  7 PagesOrganizational Management Approach Analysis Management theories have been long analyzed in search of the most efficient method to achieve the greatest amount of work with the lowest amount of effort. As long as jobs have been worked there has been managers analyzing the efforts and contemplating newer and more efficient techniques to accomplish the work. Management theories have defined the way jobs are completed today. Even some of the oldest management theories still have relevance in today’s workplace. IRead MoreMotivational Theories on How to Manage Employees1640 Words   |  7 PagesToday there are many different motivational theories that have shaped the organizational perspective on how to manage and motivate employees. These theories offer explanations of employee behaviors and present strategies that focus on aiding employees in achieving their potential. Due to the variety of factors that play into motivation and the complexity of the task itself, organizations will find achieving ideal performance to be a di fficult task. Determining what motivates each individual is notRead MoreWhat Are The Impact Of Parental Involvement On Student Motivation And Academic Achievement1161 Words   |  5 PagesMethods Research Design This study looks to examine the impact of parental involvement on student motivation and academic achievement while focusing on urban communities. A mixed methods research design will be conducted in order to â€Å"explain, clarify, and extend results discovered through the use of â€Å" (Mertler 2016) a longitudinal survey design, specifically a trend study. Since both quantitative and qualitative data will be collected on the same survey, the type of mixed methods research beingRead MoreCritically Analyzing the Main Issues in the Case Study Using Relevant Theories Related to Organization and Management1306 Words   |  6 PagesCritically Analyzing the Main Issues in the Case Study Using Relevant Theories Related to Organization and Management This case study deals with the Oticon’s organizational change, a Danish firm specialised in hearing aids. Due to an instable environment, the firm has transformed the organisation of the structure in order to be competitive in an international market and consequently it has changed the work, the hierarchy, the organisational culture and patterns. The caseRead MoreManagement School of Thought1542 Words   |  7 Pagesthe period during which they were popular. Herold Koontz was the first who have attempted to classify the various approaches on the management in the schools of management theory. Based on the writings of some of the scholars and Koontz, the management thoughts, have been classified in the following schools of management theory. a) Management Process School: This school developed in France. Henri Fayol, a Frenchman is considered as the father of this school. Sometimes this school is referred to asRead MoreThe Dissection Of A Poorly Defined Concept1648 Words   |  7 Pagesnursing knowledge is gained through the clarification of ambiguous concepts by exhaustive examination of particularly clinically relevant phenomenon. This knowledge can then be later extrapolated to develop new theories or simply be reformulated to refine concepts (Bousso et al., 2014). In analyzing quality of life (QOL), this writing attempts to reveal a more solidified and practical definition by evaluating the concepts common themes across various literature sources. The concepts universal attributesRead MoreArctic Survival – from Success to Failure1709 Words   |  7 Pagescollaboration is detrimental; in fact, our outcome was unique among the class and of great surprise to the professor and entire class section. To be sure, pooling resources, elaboration of material, and support and motivation, while perhaps more time consuming, typically offer improved results. In theory, this model implies that a team’s collective knowledge can maximize utility and ensure the best outcome given the available information and perspectives. In our case, our group dynamics were such that we didRead MoreImportance Of Artificial Intelligence1156 Words   |  5 PagesTitle: Understanding Emotional Intelligence and its role in development of AI Introduction In 1983, Howard Gardener, an American psychologist proposed eight (originally seven) types of intelligences (Gardner, Howard, 1983, Frames of Mind: The Theory of Multiple Intelligences). Emotional Intelligence was not one of the eight as it did not fulfill eight criteria set by Gardener which all intelligence must meet. It is interesting that Gardener gave interpersonal intelligence place in the list as it

Wednesday, May 6, 2020

Time Traveler’s Wife Free Essays

2012-07410March 15, 2013 ENG 2 G-3RDraft no. 1 The Time Traveler’s Wife (Film) A Reaction Paper Why is love intensified by absence? (Niffenegger, 2003) The Time Traveler’s Wife is a romantic drama film directed by Robert Schwentke and was based on a novel by Audrey Niffenegger of the same title. The film tells the story of Henry DeTamble (Eric Bana), a librarian who suffers from a genetic disorder that causes him to jump back and forth in time, and Clare Abshire (Rachel McAdams), as they endeavor to live a happy and normal life. We will write a custom essay sample on Time Traveler’s Wife or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the early 1970s, a six year-old Henry survives a car accident wherein his mother died. The tension before the impact enabled him to travel back two weeks before the accident. He was then transported back into the present and witnessed the death of his mother before him. An older version of him tries to help Henry by explaining that he is indeed a time traveler. Henry finds himself living the past, present, and future at the same time. In 1991, Henry meets for the first time an art student named Clare. Though she is delighted to see him, Henry was not able to recognize her. She later reveals that the future Henry time traveled and met the six year old Clare. They develop a relationship and Henry finally felt permanence in his life. Subsequently, the couple enters a married life which will be teemed with obstacles brought about by Henry’s condition. The film Time Traveler’s Wife employed time travel as one of main character’s flaw and strong point at the same time expressing the love story that attracts most of the women audience. Its title and movie trailer just provides sufficient ideas that will make you think about it and finally watch the film. Considering the fact that it was primarily based on a book, it can be posited that the story was crammed and made to fit in the specific amount of time. This caused the movie to lose its richness which left the supporting characters with little exposure who may have contributed to the audience’s understanding and interpretation and to the story’s further development. Moreover, the film focused too much on the love story of Henry and Clare and ignored the other characters’ involvement and influence on the main characters’ decision as opposed to the book. Critiques aside, the story was very poignant. It provided various themes such as the importance of time, love, family, marriage, sex and reality. Love was expressed and interpreted by the characters in various ways—physical lovemaking, Clare’s patience (or impatience) for waiting Henry from his travels, and sacrifices that each of them made in their pursuit of happiness. It was emphasized that love is an important aspect of life that overcomes and recognizes no obstacles. The film also gives the audience the idea of struggle between life as something that is already written and pre-determined, and the capacity or power of our free will and choices. Sex and racism, to some extent, is depicted in the movie. It shows the importance of physical connection to the intimacy of the main characters. In addition, the character of Eric Bana criticized the Republicans and hunters. Lastly, versions of reality were presented—that of Henry’s and of Clare’s. It gives the audience the impression that reality is subjective and thereby influenced by emotions. Time Traveler’s Wife can be considered as a carpe diem movie. Although it contains a timeline structure that is quite confusing for the viewers and disturbing scenes and language, the film earns the audience awe and tears by the story of two lovers who are victims of the unpredictable fate. How to cite Time Traveler’s Wife, Essays

Time Traveler’s Wife Free Essays

2012-07410March 15, 2013 ENG 2 G-3RDraft no. 1 The Time Traveler’s Wife (Film) A Reaction Paper Why is love intensified by absence? (Niffenegger, 2003) The Time Traveler’s Wife is a romantic drama film directed by Robert Schwentke and was based on a novel by Audrey Niffenegger of the same title. The film tells the story of Henry DeTamble (Eric Bana), a librarian who suffers from a genetic disorder that causes him to jump back and forth in time, and Clare Abshire (Rachel McAdams), as they endeavor to live a happy and normal life. We will write a custom essay sample on Time Traveler’s Wife or any similar topic only for you Order Now In the early 1970s, a six year-old Henry survives a car accident wherein his mother died. The tension before the impact enabled him to travel back two weeks before the accident. He was then transported back into the present and witnessed the death of his mother before him. An older version of him tries to help Henry by explaining that he is indeed a time traveler. Henry finds himself living the past, present, and future at the same time. In 1991, Henry meets for the first time an art student named Clare. Though she is delighted to see him, Henry was not able to recognize her. She later reveals that the future Henry time traveled and met the six year old Clare. They develop a relationship and Henry finally felt permanence in his life. Subsequently, the couple enters a married life which will be teemed with obstacles brought about by Henry’s condition. The film Time Traveler’s Wife employed time travel as one of main character’s flaw and strong point at the same time expressing the love story that attracts most of the women audience. Its title and movie trailer just provides sufficient ideas that will make you think about it and finally watch the film. Considering the fact that it was primarily based on a book, it can be posited that the story was crammed and made to fit in the specific amount of time. This caused the movie to lose its richness which left the supporting characters with little exposure who may have contributed to the audience’s understanding and interpretation and to the story’s further development. Moreover, the film focused too much on the love story of Henry and Clare and ignored the other characters’ involvement and influence on the main characters’ decision as opposed to the book. Critiques aside, the story was very poignant. It provided various themes such as the importance of time, love, family, marriage, sex and reality. Love was expressed and interpreted by the characters in various ways—physical lovemaking, Clare’s patience (or impatience) for waiting Henry from his travels, and sacrifices that each of them made in their pursuit of happiness. It was emphasized that love is an important aspect of life that overcomes and recognizes no obstacles. The film also gives the audience the idea of struggle between life as something that is already written and pre-determined, and the capacity or power of our free will and choices. Sex and racism, to some extent, is depicted in the movie. It shows the importance of physical connection to the intimacy of the main characters. In addition, the character of Eric Bana criticized the Republicans and hunters. Lastly, versions of reality were presented—that of Henry’s and of Clare’s. It gives the audience the impression that reality is subjective and thereby influenced by emotions. Time Traveler’s Wife can be considered as a carpe diem movie. Although it contains a timeline structure that is quite confusing for the viewers and disturbing scenes and language, the film earns the audience awe and tears by the story of two lovers who are victims of the unpredictable fate. How to cite Time Traveler’s Wife, Essays

Tuesday, April 28, 2020

The Grape Of Wrath Essays - U.S. Route 66, Dust Bowl,

The Grape Of Wrath The Grapes of Wrath is a novel by John Steinbeck that exposes the desperate conditions under which the migratory farm families of America during the 1930's live under. The novel tells of one families migration west to California through the great economic depression of the 1930's. The Joad family had to abandon their home and their livelihoods. They had to uproot and set adrift because tractors were rapidly industrializing their farms. The bank took possession of their land because the owners could not pay off their loan. The novel shows how the Joad family deals with moving to California. How they survive the cruelty of the land owners that take advantage of them, their poverty and willingness to work. The Grapes of Wrath combines Steinbeck adoration of the land, his simple hatred of corruption resulting from materialism (money) and his abiding faith in the common people to overcome the hostile environment. The novel opens with a retaining picture of nature on rampage. The novel shows the men and women that are unbroken by nature. The theme is one of man verses a hostile environment. His body destroyed but his spirit is not broken. The method used to develop the theme of the novel is through the use of symbolism. There are several uses of symbols in the novel from the turtle at the beginning to the rain at the end. As each symbol is presented through the novel they show examples of the good and the bad things that exist within the novel. The opening chapter paints a vivid picture of the situation facing the drought-stricken farmers of Oklahoma. Dust is described a covering everything, smothering the life out of anything that wants to grow. The dust is symbolic of the erosion of the lives of the people. The dust is synonymous with deadness. The land is ruined ^way of life (farming) gone, people ^uprooted and forced to leave. Secondly, the dust stands for ^profiteering banks in the background that squeeze the life out the land by forcing the people off the land. The soil, the people (farmers) have been drained of life and are exploited: The last rain fell on the red and gray country of Oklahoma in early May. The weeds became a dark green to protect themselves from the sun's unyielding rays....The wind grew stronger, uprooting the weakened corn, and the air became so filled with dust that the stars were not visible at night. (Chp 1) As the chapter continues a turtle, which appears and reappears several times early in the novel, can be seen to stand for survival, a driving life force in all of mankind that cannot be beaten by nature or man. The turtle represents a hope that the trip to the west is survivable by the farmer migrants (Joad family). The turtle further represents the migrants struggles against nature/man by overcoming every obstacle he encounters: the red ant in his path, the truck driver who tries to run over him, being captured in Tom Joad's jacket: And now a light truck approached, and as it came near, the driver saw the turtle and swerved to hit it. The driver of the truck works for a large company, who try to stop the migrants from going west, when the driver attempts to hit the turtle it is another example of the big powerful guy trying to flatten or kill the little guy. Everything the turtle encounters trys its best to stop the turtle from making its westerly journey. Steadily the turtle advances on, ironically to the southwest, the direction of the mirgration of people. The turtle is described as being lasting, ancient, old and wise: horny head, yellowed toenails, indestructible high dome of a shell, humorous old eyes. (Chp 1) The driver of the truck, red ant and Tom Joad's jacket are all symbolic of nature and man the try to stop the turtle from continuing his journey westward to the promise land. The turtle helps to develop the theme by showing its struggle against life/ comparing it with the Joad struggle against man. The grapes seem to symbolize both bitterness and copiousness. Grandpa the oldest member of the Joad family talks of the

Friday, March 20, 2020

History of Summerian essays

History of Summerian essays Ancient times have it that a group of people of heritage called the Sumerians has documented information about a planet thats beyond Pluto in our solar system in a different orbit. They have it documented as the 12th planet because they counted Earths moon as a planet and also counts the sun. They counted every object in the solar system, but at the time, they probably did not know the other planets in our solar system have their own moons also. They also probably never seen asteroids or meteors, Im guessing, since they count all the objects in the solar system. These groups of people, the Sumerians, have all this information documented about Planet X and also have their own theories and beliefs. They believe that this planet is where the nonliving goes. They also believe it to be the stairway to heaven. Who knows whats fact and whats fiction? Only time will tell. Recent studies show that scientist all over the world are trying to conclude everything they can about their studies on the old artifacts and information they have. Since present times have all the use of technology, recent advances in DNA research have been established. It established that there was an Eve who lived about 250 to 270 thousand years ago, a first mother from who all modern humans stem, no matter what their racial heritage are. In 1987, scientists from the Universities of California and Michigan announced that all human beings descended from a single mitochondrial, Eve, who lived in Africa. Then came news a few years later that there also was an actual Adam. Finally, genetic advances made test-tube babies possible by mixing the male sperm with the female egg and reimplanting it. The knowledge that we have acknowledged corroborates what the Sumerians knew six thousand years ago. You wonder how is it possible, how could they know? How could their symbol of the entwined serpents, that we still use today to denote medi...